Monday, May 25, 2020
Parallels in WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s Life and A Streetcar Named Desire and Glass Menagerie Tennessee Williams is one of the greatest American playwrights. He was constantly shocking audiences with themes such as homosexuality, drug addictions, and rape. He broke free from taboos on such subjects, paving the way for future playwrights. He also was a very good writer. One of the things he is famous for is his dialogue, which is very poetic. Williams wrote about his life. The Glass Menagerie is a very autobiographical play. A Streetcar Named Desire, although meant to a play that anyone can relate to, also contained characters and situations from his life. In both plays, the characters are drawn from his life. The other relationshipÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦During the depression, he worked for his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s shoe factory. It was a horrible time for Tom. He hated working there and felt that those three years were wasted time (Roudane). At the age of 16, Tom published a story for the first time. It was in response to the question, Ã¢â¬Å"Can a Good Wife be a Good Sport?Ã¢â¬ He took third place in the contest and won 5 dollars. In 1937, his first play, Cairo, Shanghai, Bombay, was produced in Memphis. After writing a series of other plays that werenÃ¢â¬â¢t so successful, he hit it big with The Glass Menagerie. This play was originally called Ã¢â¬Å"The Gentleman CallerÃ¢â¬ , and was turned down as a screenplay. He was 34 when he wrote it. In 1948, Williams wrote A Streetcar Named Desire, perhaps his best known play. This play earned him his first Pulitzer Prize. He earned his second Pulitzer in 1955, with Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (Cash). Like his father, Tennessee gambled and drank. He was also a hypochondriac. He struggled with addictions to prescription drugs and alcoholism. He found love in 1947, with Frank Merlo. Merlo often provided stability in the playwrightÃ¢â¬â¢s crazy life. Any lasting friendships that the couple had were many due to MerloÃ¢â¬â¢s charm (Sullivan). They stayed together until 1961, when Merlo died of lung cancer. Williams fell into depression about MerloÃ¢â¬â¢s death, and in 1983Show MoreRelatedDeath of a Salesman (Analysis and Personal Reaction)2850 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagestimes gone by. Being memory, it allows for music to announce emotions and characters, and well as exaggerations and/or omissions. As Tom says in Tennessee Williams The Glass Menagerie: Being a memory play, it is dimly lighted, it is sentimental, it is not realistic. In memory everything seems to happen to music., and although this describes The Glass Menagerie, it also applies to Death of Salesman. The fact that its a memory play allows the story to be partial to the one recounting it, and Willys
Thursday, May 14, 2020
A Guide to MADD Sites Ã¢â¬Å"In 2001, more than half a million people were injured in crashes where police reported that alcohol was present Ã¢â¬â an average of one person injured approximately every 2 minutesÃ¢â¬ (Blincoe qtd. in MADD main). Ã¢â¬Å"In 2002, an estimated 17,419 people died in alcoholÃ¢â¬ârelated traffic crashesÃ¢â¬âan average of one every 30 minutes. These deaths constitute 41 percent of the 42,815 total traffic fatalities [in America]Ã¢â¬ (NHTSA qtd. in MADD main). From these statistics, it is clear to see that drunk driving is a serious issue that harms thousands of innocent American citizens. Although there are many organizations that address the issue of drinking and driving, MADD, Mothers Against Drunk Driving, is the mostÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The tragic bond they shared served as the foundation for their organization. Together they formed MADD, Mothers Against Drunk Drivers. According to reports, through the donations of victims, citizens, friends and a $ 65,000 grant from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, MADD was an immediate success. Ã¢â¬Å"By the fall of 1982, more than 70 MADD chapters were operating, primarily initiated by victims searching for a way to bring some sense to the apparently meaningless deaths and injuries of their loved onesÃ¢â¬ (Lord qtd. in MADD main). Today, MADD has more than 600 chapters in the United States and affiliates in Guam, Canada and Puerto Rico. Studies show that MADD is not an organization comprised of only mothers of victims. It has expanded to fathers, siblings and friends. Not all members are victims or have been affected by an alcohol related incident. In fact, some members are just citizens who care (MADD-Canada). MADD now stands for Mothers Against Drunk Driving to focus on the crime itself rather than just the offender. Lord explains that MADD originally started as a group that fought for stricter laws and harsher punishments for drunk driving offenders. Over time, their mission has not changed, but has been expanded on. MADD now works to eliminate the crime and reach out to the youth, as well as provide support for victims and fight for stricter drunkShow MoreRelatedStrategic Marketing Planning for Non Profit Organization9605 Words Ã |Ã 39 Pagesvictims of drunk drivers. But supplementing these clas sic marketing techniques, MADD also deploys equally classic communications strategies Ã¢â¬â position papers, voterÃ¢â¬â¢s guides, legislative briefing books, and on-line advocacy, for example. Together, this combination of disciplined marketing and focused, issue-oriented communications has made MADD a political force in every statehouse and on Capitol Hill. And itÃ¢â¬â¢s not just MADD. Effective organizations of all stripes are taking advantage of both sides ofRead MoreDriving Under the Influence4388 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesSchool, and time spent in jail. Recently, several states have increased penalties for those caught drinking and driving, especially for repeat offenders, since the nationwide DUI laws passed in 1980 pushed by groups like Mother Against Drunk Drivers (MADD). Some state legislatures have passed laws requiring mandatory jail time for repeated DUI convictions. Fines have increased and the length at which ones license is suspended has been extended and receivin g a Ã¢â¬Å"hardshipÃ¢â¬ license to get back and forthRead MoreFunctional Health Patterns Community Assessment2781 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pages------------------------------------------------- Functional Health Patterns Community Assessment Guide * Functional Health Pattern (FHP) Template Directions: This FHP template is to be used for organizing community assessment data in preparation for completion of your collaborative learning community (CLC) assignment. Address every bulleted statement in each section with data or rationale for deferral. You may also add additional bullet points if applicable to your community. Value/BeliefRead MoreLodging Inductry24737 Words Ã |Ã 99 Pagesprofitable customer relationships. 5. Understand how the marketing concepts call for a customer orientation. Supportive PowerPoint Slides: 1-1 to 1-5. TEACHING SUGGESTIONS: Teaching suggestions are provided in two formats. The first format guides the instructor through the chapter objectives. The second format is a chapter outline and provides more detail than the chapter objective format. OBJECTIVES: Objective: 1. Understand the relationship between hospitality and travel industryRead MoreMarketing Communications Notes17720 Words Ã |Ã 71 Pagesprofile of who their consumers are, what they do and what they buy on a consumer by consumer, target group by target group or country by country basis. Ã¢â¬ËCookiesÃ¢â¬â¢ (mini programs embedded into Internet sites) allow companies to track consumers as they navigate within their site and as they switch to other sites, generating in-depth information about consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ Web behaviour. This information can be used by marketers in their promotional strategies, allowing for a tighter targeting of the messages and communication
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
1.0 Executive Summary This report provides an analysis and compare of the current profitability, efficiency and financial stability of Premier Investments Ltd and David Jones Ltd over last 2 years. Methods of analysis include trend, horizontal and vertical analyses as well as ratios such as Gross Net profit margin, Inventory turnover and Current ratios. All calculations can be found in the appendices. Results of data analysed show that David Jones Ltd have better performance and is more stability than Premier Investments Ltd. In particular, Premier Investments LtdÃ¢â¬â¢s profit had dropped almos half than the year before.The report finds the prospects of both companies in their current position are pretty positive. The major areas ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Premier InvestmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Gross Profit Margin has increased slightly from 59.09% in 2010 to 59.51% in 2011. The increase is not huge, but the margin is pretty good, and it reflects that the company keeps the cost under control. On the other h and, the Gross Profit Margin for David Jones has decreased from 39.73% in 2010 to 39.11% in 2011. This decrease is not very huge, but the overall figure reflects not a very profitable condition. These margins are well below the profitability of Premier Investments. This means that David Jones has a relatively poor cost control. Net Profit Margin The Net Profit Margin is a more refined measure of profitability. Gross Margin reflects half of the costs, and does not include the effect of operating costs. However, net profit margin includes the operating costs, as well (Vance 2003). Premier InvestmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Net Profit Margin has decreased from 16.11% in 2010 to 9.54% in 2011. This is a significant decrease in profitability, since the net margin has decrease by over 5%. It reflects that the company is unable to control its operating expenses. David Jones Limited, on the other hand, had a net Profit Margin of 12.11% in 2010, which increased to 12.62% in 2011. The increase is not very huge, but the overall Net Profit Margin isShow MoreRelatedRatio Analysis : Analysis And Interpretation Of Financial Statements1490 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRatio analysis is used to describe the important relationship that lies between figures based on line items in financial statements like the balance sheet, profit and loss account, and a budgetary control organization. Ratio analysis is a technique of analysis and interpretation of financial statements. It helps in evaluating the financial position and performance of the firm, ratio analysis also allows firms to compare their operational or financial performance to another firm or the industry standardRead MoreUsefulness And Limitations Of Financial Ratios1510 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageslimitations of financial ratios in evaluating the performance and management of companies Ratio analysis is used to describe the important relationship that lies between figures based on line items in financial statements like the balance sheet, profit and loss account, and a budgetary control organization. Ratio analysis is a technique of analysis and interpretation of financial statements. It helps in evaluating the financial position and performance of the firm, ratio analysis also allows firmsRead MorePatton-Fuller Hospital Essay915 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAre the financial ratios for the hospital improving? The Answer is: No There is a essential use and limitations of financial ratio analysis, One must keep in mind the following issues when using financial ratios: One of the most important reasons for using financial ratio analysis is comparability and for this, a reference point is required. Usually, financial ratios are compared to historical ratios of the business itself, competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s financial ratios or the overall ratios of the industryRead MoreRatio and Financial Ratio Analyisis1712 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRatio and Financial Statements Analysis Kimberly Y. Gruber University of Maryland University College Dr. Sunando Sengupta 07/25/2013 Turnitin Score: 23% Executive Summary The purpose of this paper is to examine ratio and financial statement analysis. Such analysis is a useful tool for managers and stakeholders to evaluate a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial health in order to identify opportunities for growth and areas of weakness so as to institute corrective measures. 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However there are some arguments on whetherRead MoreFinancial Ratios Analysis and Comparison Paper1478 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFinancial Ratios Analysis and Comparison Paper Dianne Davis MHA 612 Professor Johnson June 7, 2014 Abstract It is important for healthcare organizations to understand their present performance and weak areas in order to generate more effective operational strategies. Financial ratio analysis is an effective tool to determine hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s performance on several indicators such as ability to pay debt, capability to generate revenue, and sales performance etc. The objectiveRead MoreFinancial Ratio Analysis in a Company859 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesto Olowe (1997), Financial Ratio Analysis is the relationship between the performance of a company and the monetary data in the financial statements to assist the economic conditions. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
This report is based on the marketing techniques/ skills of Primark and Oxfam based on their products/services. Before we can understand the effectiveness of the marketing techniques, we have investigated both companies and carried research by looking through different sources. Sources include; internet research, company website, advertisements which we evaluated on www. youtube. com for Oxfam. Additional sources include the BTEC Level 3 Business Book1, which was used to look up techniques such as; survival strategies and brand awareness. We have also used resources such as PowerPoint Presentations from The Times 100, Business Case Studies. In this report you will find some information on the company itself and how they market themselves which we have put into sections in a specific order to show how we came to the conclusion of how effective we think their marketing skills are. We have provided evidence of our research and transferred relevant data into charts. Oxfam Company Purpose: Oxfam is a voluntary charity organisation. OxfamÃ¢â¬â¢s main objective is to reach out to poor countries and help civilians manage their own lives from the sources Oxfam provide. Oxfam market themselves through their website and television commercials. This helps them get more attention from people and persuade them to donate to Oxfam. Oxfam also use direct mail. Oxfam also market through a sales orientated approach. For example direct sales. Marketing Strategies: OxfamÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing strategies for growth is market penetration as they want to attract new customers to increase their share in the market. Marketing Objective: OxfamÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing objective is to raise awareness of poverty in less economically developed and famine countries. On the subject of raising awareness we found out that Oxfam establish ethical trading. Oxfam state on their website that they help communities to fight against businesses who put lives of civilians at risk. Oxfam speak of the Swiss pharmaceutical giant Novartis challenging rights in India based on developing cheaper medication. We have made a screen shot of this particular section under Ã¢â¬Ëproof of researchÃ¢â¬â¢ below. Company Product/ Service: Oxfam have a charity shop selling many products from clothes to books. Oxfam also have charity projects which take place throughout the year fulfilling their company purpose. This involves them providing aid to many countries around Africa and Asia. Oxfam supply the countries with physical resources allowing the poor communities to start a new life and make a living by providing them with some of the following; civilians making a living by growing and trading crops, providing service in clinics set up by Oxfam and supervising schools made for the homeless and orphan children. However the services based on growing and trading crops are limited due to climate change. Climate change can destroy the service of helping civilians grow crops in many geographical zones. This can clearly create a loss for Oxfam and change the way Oxfam manage this service. We did not find any sources linking us to the difficulty it causes Oxfam apart from the PDF file provided by Oxfam. The section of this file was headlined Ã¢â¬ËHelping communities to adapt to climate change Ã¢â¬â¢ and the figures provided on the situations Oxfam identified were based on years 2011-2012. Most situations are based on flooding and we have analysed this section of the file by using the figures to help us understand how Oxfam will deal with this situations to stay successful. We have provided a graph containing the exact figures and have used the evidence to link it with OxfamÃ¢â¬â¢s loss and gain in the business industry. The graph is below, headlined under Ã¢â¬Ëcharts and graphsÃ¢â¬â¢. Oxfam also helps rebuild homes for those who have been affected by natural disasters, with that Oxfam have provided them with food and clean water supplies. These services are ongoing and have been going on for 70 years and have made Oxfam one of the largest charity organisations in the UK. Marketing Techniques: Marketing techniques are techniques that a company uses to expand in the industry or to achieve its company purpose. Growth strategies such as market development help charities like Oxfam expand. Growth strategies, four departments based on Ignor AnsoffÃ¢â¬â¢s theory (1957): Market Penetration Product Development Market Development Diversification Market development is when a company is using an existing product but is marketing it in a new market such as other countries. This increases popularity for the service and the company. For example, Oxfam have now taken their service to more LEDC countries and have expanded their service though nothing in their service has changed. Oxfam also use another technique known as diversification. Diversification is when a company introduces a new product/ service to a new market but does not relate it to the existing product. The product is completely new. For example, Oxfam have now tried to gain popularity to give them the opportunity to raise more money. To achieve this, Oxfam have held charity concerts and festivals. This is diversification as it is completely different from the service Oxfam provide. Market Orientating: The Focus of Their Marketing Every company has a reason behind why they market the product/service in a certain way. OxfamÃ¢â¬â¢s reason behind their marketing is to be able to raise more money and to complete more projects in order to do that Oxfam have to make their charity well known to be able to cover all costs. Promotional Material/Techniques: OxfamÃ¢â¬â¢s best marketing technique is through advertising poverty and their charity projects on television advertisements, social networking sites and radio commercials. This is one of their survival strategies to keep them functioning as a charity and allowing them to reach out to more countries. Oxfam approaches wealthy members of the community and those who would donate to charities to put an end to poverty and destruction caused by natural disasters. Oxfam aims at the sensitive side of the viewers to create an upsetting emotion through the illusions in their adverts. The viewers are shown civilians struggling to reach day to day needs and Oxfam show how painful it is for them to do so by showing a shot of their tears in their eyes which represents hardship and pain. Then they move on to showing how OxfamÃ¢â¬â¢s aid has healed the needy community through helping them maintain their own lives and make a living. This is another skill used by charities to gain more donations by showing how much improvement they can make. For some charities like Oxfam this has made a great impact as it helps them carry out more projects as it is a form of prompting the organisation. Oxfam survives through volunteers taking part and helping them with their projects and the purpose of promoting themselves is to gain as much help as they can. Oxfam rely strongly upon the money raised and given from the public and it is one of the essential factors they rely on to survive as a charity. Marketing effectiveness OxfamÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing skills are more effective as they have been successful for 70 years and are well known for a charity. This report has based OxfamÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing effectiveness on the PDF file found on the Oxfam website which stated the income and expenditures based on projects, community support on raising money and other additional costs involved within the organisation. This PDF file shows how strategic Oxfam are with the income and expenditures as they themselves as a charity organisation have analysed all the departments of their income and expenditures. As we analysed the file we found figures showing how much profit (including success in progression within each project) Oxfam have made. This gave us the understanding that this financial increase has given Oxfam the opportunity to expand the charity organisation, allowing them to hold festivals and music concerts alongside with the number of charity shops they have around the UK. We think that this is the way Oxfam make themselves recognizable in order for them to become better known in the country and among many communities. Further on with the investigation, we investigated OxfamÃ¢â¬â¢s Trading Income and Fundraising Income which we have made a similar replica of the graphs we researched on the PDF file below titled under Ã¢â¬Ëcharts and tablesÃ¢â¬â¢. Primark Company Purpose: Primark is a private retailing company started in Ireland to the United Kingdom and now in some countries in Europe. PrimarkÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to sell fashionable clothes for a cheaper price. Marketing Strategies: PrimarkÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing strategies for growth is market development as they want to attract new customers to increase sales leaving themselves at medium risk. Marketing Objective: PrimarkÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing objective is to standout in the retailing market with their low prices as the advantage to rise above their competitors. To meet their objectives Primark do this by producing their clothes in third world countries and by buying in bulk amounts to succeed financially. Company Product/ Service: Primark have many products based on fashion and design. They sell fashionable clothes; designs of which have been seen on the catwalks, made to suit all ages. Primark also have a section for jewellery and a minimal section for cosmetic products. PrimarkÃ¢â¬â¢s products are not as competitive as the price due to the cheap quality but they are not always predictable and create products in good quality which is unique to them. Marketing Techniques: Primark uses different marketing techniques to Oxfam. Primark use survival strategies to keep the company running. Survival strategies are when a company introduces new Items and ideas to survive as a business, such as; lowering their prices or giving customers gift vouchers when customers purchase an item. This may not be used by the company; itÃ¢â¬â¢s a strategy they could call up. For example, Primark keep most of their prices very low and have various ranges of clothes and offers to increase their chances of being more competitive amongst other high street shops. As well as keeping their prices low, Primark also develop their clothes in cheaper material to allow the company to make a great amount of profit. This way the company continues to survive in the market. Other survival strategy such as branding is used by Primark. Examples of branding: Items that Primark brand are: jackets, jeans shoes with different Primark brand names. Other example of branding, some sports brands such as Adidas hold a high reputation as they are seen promoting and sponsoring sports teams. Adidas and other sports brand usually advertise their brand by using celebrities to influence consumers into buying and wearing the particular brand. The brand becomes of high reputation to the consumers so it becomes something consumers wear and promote without realising they are promoting the brand. ConsumerÃ¢â¬â¢s also have choices of merchandises to buy with the brand logo on which also helps the company to survive as it is being promoted. Market Orientating: The Focus of Their Marketing Primark want to continue to survive as retailers of the designer but affordable fashion wear. Primark market their products through their customers as Primark depend on them to promote their products. This has been working for Primark, and could them on of the bestselling retailers in the future as their brand will be more recognized than their price. This could give Primark the opportunity to upgrade their designs and price of their item, becoming a retailer of high quality clothing. Another focus of PrimarkÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing is that they can too design clothes as other expensive high street retailers. Promotional Material/Techniques: Primark do not advertise themselves through television or radio commercials which are making it harder for us to investigate and analyse the company alone. However we used a website known as Ã¢â¬ËThe Times 100, Business Case StudiesÃ¢â¬â¢ which provided us with a PowerPoint. PrimarkÃ¢â¬â¢s aim is to promote brand awareness by putting their company logo on billboards and singling themselves out by prompting their prices as being cheap but saying their clothes are fashionable. However Primark do promote themselves through social networking sites such as Facebook where they post their latest trends and designs. Promoting a company on social network site can make them more successful as the use of technology and the use of social networking has increased and for Primark it is the best way for them to create publicity. Primark are also the most discussed Retail Company in the community and there for are always gaining loads of customers and great creditability from customers too. Ethical Trading: Primark have been establishing workers rights including rights of women in factories, mainly focusing on their health in factories. PrimarkÃ¢â¬â¢s concern for workers health and rights was developed after they had been reported of using child labour; no that it made Primark make changes but they still explained themselves on their website. Primark have not shown any live evidence such as, to prove that they no longer use under aged children to create their products but increase their price on products. For Primark it could be a way to say they have put an end to child labour and are now part of fair trade. As before, when they were using child labour, their prices were lower.
Thursday, April 9, 2020
All My Life for Sale Essay The Life of EBay In the essay Ã¢â¬Å"All My Life for SaleÃ¢â¬ , John Freyer explained how he sold all of his possessions in his apartment to move out for college. Those items had some sort of sentimental value to people who purchased them and gained a vague relationship with them. One way he expressed himself, is when he sold his first wave of objects on eBay. He asked the highest bidders if they could update him on how his things were doing. He wondered if his buyers were taking good care of his things. Freyer is the type of person who would hold on to things hoping they would get used or fixed one day. He got a community started on his website allmylifeforsale. com. Over time, Freyer started to receive messages containing photographs about the stories from people who were a part of the project. He also requested if people could send him their address so he could come and visit. Not too long after, an invitation from the person who purchased FreyerÃ¢â¬â¢s salt shaker invited him to their house in Portland, Maine. The six thousand dollars that Freyer made from his selling his things helped him start his journey to visit people all over the country by car. Ã¢â¬Å"As I met more people, the awkwardness of meeting strangers started to wear offÃ¢â¬ ¦ Some may say too comfortableÃ¢â¬ ¦ I would help myself to food in the high bidderÃ¢â¬â¢s refrigerator without a second thoughtÃ¢â¬ (85) He started to think they were more than just strangers. For example, he acted like a kid who walks into his parentÃ¢â¬â¢s fridge to get something to drink. We will write a custom essay sample on All My Life for Sale specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on All My Life for Sale specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on All My Life for Sale specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Soon after September 11, Freyer starts to mature. I stopped caring so much about the objects that I was visiting and started caring more about the people who invited meÃ¢â¬ (86). This personifies that he is growing up in a sense that he is paying attention to the things that really matter in this world. Ã¢â¬Å"Although I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t made it to everyone who had invited me to visit, I knew that it was time to stop driving. Ã¢â¬ (86) Freyer started to realize that everything was in good hands and he should start worrying about himself. He wanted to set his priorities straight. He had to graduate college.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Autism spectrum disorder Essays Autism spectrum disorder Essay Autism spectrum disorder Essay Autism spectrum upset Introduction Autism is an overall term which is used to depict a group of complicated encephalon developmental upset which is besides called permeant developmental upset. There are other permeant developmental upsets which include permeant developmental upset which is non yet specified, Aspernger s syndrome, Rett syndrome, and childhood disintegrative upset. This group of upsets is jointly referred to as Autism spectrum upsets ( Morgan, Jones A ; Jordan, 2001 ) . Prevalence rate The prevalence rate of the upset is estimated to be approximately 0.7 % among kids doing it more prevailing than kid malignant neoplastic disease, juvenile diabetes, and paediatric AIDS. It is reported that around 1.5 1000000s of individuals populating in the United States and other legion 1000000s of people around the universe are enduring from autism. The United States authorities figures show that the prevalence of autism among its population has been lifting every twelvemonth. The ground for the addition has non been found, but improved diagnosing and environmental influence are considered to be the cause for the increased consciousness. Male kids have been reported to be more prone to the upset as compared to the female kids and are diagnosed with the status rather often. In the United States it is estimated that around 1 % of the male childs are diagnosed with the upset ( Ehlers A ; Gillberg, 1993 ) Symptoms Every person who is diagnosed with autism has alone marks which can non be compared to that observed in another person. This is so because autism is a combination of upsets, one individual s status can be really terrible with the other individual holding a little 1. The normally ascertained marks in persons with autism include ictus upsets, GI jobs, mental deceleration and unwellness. Explanations for the being of these jobs in persons holding autism are non known. It is possible to province that these extra conditions observed is grounds of assorted signifiers of autism with each being caused by different factors ( Haley, 2006 ) . Although the conditions listed supra are rather normally observed in persons holding autism as compared to those people who do non hold autism, they are non observed in everybody enduring from autism. The other symptoms observed include societal and communicating symptoms, centripetal and motor symptoms, and personality differences ( Rudy, 2009 ) .Autistic spectrum upsets have a common societal interactions, communicating, and imaginativeness which are linked to stiff, continual paradigm of manners. It normally begins at birth or at the fist three old ages of life, but can besides get down later on during the kid s life. The three of symptoms can be noticed at all degrees of intelligence and can be observed entirely or accompanied with some other physical or even psychological upset ( Columns. 2009 ) Causes The chief cause of autism is non yet established with the research workers mentioning the chief cause being idiopathic. Since the upset has changing badness and the clinical marks associated with it, it is suggested that the status has assorted causes ( Novella, 2008 ) . Research workers suspect a cocktail of factors which might be considered to do autism and they include multiple familial constituents which might do autism entirely or when combined with other environmental factors which are non yet determined ( Wing A ; Gould, 1979 ) The clip at which the kid might hold got exposed to these factors is besides important, for illustration, before birth, during birth or even after the kid is already born. Very few instances of autism can be associated with familial upsets like Fragile X, Tuberous Sclerosis, and Angelman s syndrome. Exposure to environmental factors which are infective like maternal German measles or CMV, or chemicals like thalidomide or valporate at the clip of gestation ( Ehlers A ; Gillberg, 1993 ) There is an increasing involvement among research workers on the map of immune system in the control of autism. There have been suggestions that autism may affect redness in the cardinal nervous tissues ( Wing A ; Potter, 2008 ) . Animal surveies have besides produced grounds on how the immune system of the organic structure can act upon symptoms which are linked to autism. There have been organized autism negotiations which aim at increasing the degree of consciousness and besides probes of utile immunological facts to research workers who are non in that field and those within the field of autism at the community degree ( Haley, 2006 ) . Previously, autism was believed to be caused by bad parenting as was proposed by Dr. Leo Kanner in 1943. Because the unequivocal causes of autism is non yet established, it has become clear that bad parenting is non one of the possible causes of the upset. Dr. Bernard Rimland who founded the Autism Society of America and the Autism Research Institute enabled the medical community to appreciate that autism does non come approximately as a consequence of cold parents but from biological beginning ( Mauro, 2009 ) Reasons for the recent consciousness Harmonizing to the professionals in the field of kid development in Britain, there has been increase in the figure of kids diagnosed with autistic spectrum upsets. Dr. Kanner was the first individual to qualify autism when he described it as a status in a certain group of kids with a unusual form of behaviour noticed after birth or before achieving the age of 30 months. He subsequently referred to the status as early infantile autism ( Columns. 2009 ) Harmonizing to the professionals in the field of kid development in Britain, there has been increase in the figure of kids diagnosed with autistic spectrum upsets. Dr. Kanner was the first individual to qualify autism when he described it as a status in a certain group of kids with a unusual form of behaviour noticed after birth or before achieving the age of 30 months. He subsequently referred to the status as early infantile autism ( Columns. 2009 ) Many clinicians have a feeling that there has been an addition in the figure instances of autism as compared to the yesteryear. Some current surveies have showed high prevalence rates for autism. Harmonizing to California wellness and human services bureau study between the old ages 1987 to 1998, a period in which the research was done, there was rise in the figure of persons diagnosed with the upset ( Morgan, Jones A ; Jordan 2001 ) . Decision can hence be made that the addition in the figure of persons reported with autistic spectrum upsets can be attributed to alterations in referral forms and in the methods of diagnosing, and the much cognition of the different manifestations of the autistic behavior ( Ownby, 2008 ) .There might besides be alterations in the prevalence rates either locally and internationally with the cause non being known. Failure to transport out decently resourced prevalence surveies, the status of the upset is likely to stay black ( Mauro, 2009 ) Decision The grounds for the addition in the autistic spectrum is non yet clear because assorted researches has showed conflicting figures associating to the prevalence of the upset. The status still requires a batch of research work to cast visible radiation in its causes, prevalence rates and its direction. Mentions : Columns ( 2009 ) . Autistic spectrum upsets. Retrieved on 15th December, 2009 from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/312/7027/327 Ehlers, S. A ; Gillberg, C. ( 1993 ) . The epidemiology of Asperger syndrome: a entire population Survey, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34 ( 8 ) , pp. 1327-1350. Haley, B. ( 2006 ) . Vaccines and the altering epidemiology of autism. Child Care Health Dev. Retrieved on 15th December, 2009 from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.whale.to/a/autism_diagnosis.html Mauro, T. ( 2009 ) . Autism Spectrum Disorders. Retrieved on 15th December, 2009 from: hypertext transfer protocol: //specialchildren.about.com/od/gettingadiagnosis/g/Autism.htm Morgan, H. , Jones, H. A ; Jordan R. ( 2001 ) . A Guide to Services for Adults with Autistic Spectrum Disorders for Commissioners and Providers. Retrieved on 15th December, 2009 from: hypertext transfer protocol: //autism.bibliomaker.ch/BM_DIRECTORY/H/BM000001710/7723/JOR3.pdf` Novelette, S. ( 2008 ) . The Increase in Autism Diagnosiss: Two Hypothesiss. Retrieved on 15th December, 2009 from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/ ? p=95 Rudy, L. J. ( 2009 ) . A Definition of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders. Retrieved on 15th December, 2009 from: hypertext transfer protocol: //autism.about.com/od/autismterms/f/defautism.htm Ownby, M. H. ( 2008 ) . Raising Autism Awareness. Retrieved on 15th December, 2009 from: hypertext transfer protocol: //autismaspergerssyndrome.suite101.com/article.cfm/raising_autism_awareness Wing, L. A ; Potter, D. ( 2008 ) . Notes on the prevalence of autism spectrum upsets. Retrieved on 15th December, 2009 from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nas.org.uk/nas/jsp/polopoly.jsp? d=364 A ; a=2618 Wing, L. A ; Gould, J. ( 1979 ) . Severe damages of societal interaction: and associated abnormalcies in kids: epidemiology and categorization Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9 ( 1 ) , pp. 11-29.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Obamacare. The Achievements of Our Founding Fathers - Essay Example Discussion Before we embark further into the debate, it is important to learn, understand, and recall the achievements of our founding Fathers and the knowledge and experience that inspired them to establish this nature and type of government. It also important to understand and recall the origins and characters of the United States constitution and the structure of government and the rights and privileges of citizenship that is inherent in the constitution. The American constitution was drafted and promulgated in 1787.1 The early framers and formulators of the United States constitution had experienced dark and hard times under the previous despotic central government system that was dominated by tyranny and oppression. In view of the above, they devised and entrenched a system of government into the constitution that was divided with each having a clear cut jurisdiction and mandate. The framers of the constitution were keen to divide the power of the government through the constitu tion; a three tier system of government structure was established.2 United States constitution created the federal system of government in which power was shared between the federal government and the state governments. It is important to note that the power sharing structure deviates from the centralized government structure that is present in United Kingdom in which the national government maintains and controls power. Free government as proposed and understood by the founders of the nation was to restrict and structure the powers of the government with a view of securing and articulating rights in the declaration of independence, preventing tyranny, and preserving liberty. In order to achieve the above aspirations, the remedy was the creation of a strong, energetic government that had limited authority. Consequently, the powers of the government were enumerated in a written constitution, separated into different functions, responsibilities, and were further divided into the power s of federal/national government and state governments.2 The three forms of government that have been established under the United States Constitution include a federal government with three independent branches: executive, legislative and judiciary.1 The powers and functions of the above branches of the federal government are outlined in the constitution and further specified and delineated through laws that are enacted by the constitution. It is important to understand the circumstances and the reasons that led to the drafting and formulation of the constitution in relation to the functions of the government as regards its citizens. The constitution was drafted at a time when majority of Americans were expressing resentment and distrust in the central government that was authoritarian and tyrant in nature. The problem of a strong and autocratic government was further compounded by the overlapping ideas and rivalry of different states. The role of the United States constitution was , therefore, to limit the power of government over the individual, and the debate has ensued on how far such power may be extended. Initially, all the states in America had their own national congress and continental army, and they controlled their fiscal and political sovereignty.3 The drafters created,